Mark Zuckerberg debuts Meta Quest Pro VR headset that will cost $1,500

Meta to unveils Quest Pro, new 'mixed reality' headset that supports AR and VR

Meta CEO Mark Zuckerberg said on Tuesday that his company’s newest virtual reality headset, dubbed the Meta Quest Pro, will cost $1,500 and start shipping on Oct. 25.

Zuckerberg debuted the device at Meta’s Connect conference, geared toward VR and augmented reality developers.

The new headset costs $1,100 more than Meta’s Quest 2 headset and contains new technologies like an advanced mobile Snapdragon computer chip, developed with Qualcomm, that helps the device produce more advanced graphics.

The Quest Pro also has improved touch controllers that contain embedded sensors, allowing for better hand tracking, and new lenses for improved reading experiences.

The Meta Quest Pro, which will cost $1,500.

Meta

The new headset contains some mixed-reality features that can blend elements of the virtual world with the physical world. Zuckerberg has touted that as an important feature in the creation of the metaverse, which refers to digital worlds that people can access via VR and AR headsets.

Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella also appeared during the online event and discussed a partnership with Meta intended to bring some of his company’s work-collaboration apps to Quest VR devices.

Some Microsoft apps that people will be able to access with a Quest device include the Team’s chat app, the Microsoft 365 suite of work software and the company’s Xbox cloud gaming service.

“You will be able to play 2D games with your Xbox controller projected on a massive screen on Quest,” Nadella said. “It’s early days, but we’re excited for what’s to come.”

Meta shares were down about 4.5% in midday trading to $127.85, underscoring a muted response from investors about the new VR headset.

WATCH: Meta to release new high-end VR headset

Meta to release new high-end VR headset

How Mark Zuckerberg can get Facebook ‘back on track’

Mark Zuckerberg’s leadership is putting Meta on track to fail, a Harvard management expert says — but it’s not a lost cause. All Zuckerberg has to do is take a long vacation.

That’s the suggestion for Zuckerberg from Bill George, a senior fellow at Harvard Business School and former CEO of medical technology company Medtronic. George’s most important advice for the Meta co-founder: Take some time away from your work and rest your brain. 

“You need to pull back, take a sabbatical to ground yourself in your purpose and your values,” he tells CNBC Make It. “It can help you and the company get back on track.” 

George has spent the last two decades studying leadership failures, compiling his findings in a new book called “True North: Leading Authentically in Today’s Workplace, Emerging Leader Edition.” He cites Zuckerberg as just one example of a boss who has lost sight of their deeply held beliefs, values and purpose as a leader. Instead, Zuckerberg has become a leader who prioritizes profits, doesn’t accept advice and blames others, according to George. 

George has argued that those failures of leadership have certainly not helped Meta right the ship at a time when the company has lost more than 60% of its market value since last year. Various factors have contributed to Meta’s struggles, including increased competition from rivals like TikTok and an Apple iOS privacy update that’s made it more difficult for Meta to target ads to its users, as well as Zuckerberg’s heavy investment in the burgeoning metaverse space that he admits could lose “significant” amounts of money over the next several years.

George says he still has “a lot of empathy” for Zuckerberg, acknowledging that the “brilliant” CEO has been under an enormous amount of pressure ever since he co-founded Facebook in 2004. 

Zuckerberg has constantly worked to grow his company into a tech behemoth that now boasts a $381.86 billion market cap, as of Thursday morning. He helped build the modern-day social media industry that reaches billions of people each day — and now he’s made a huge bet on the metaverse in the hope that he can repeat his past success by building a new online economy. 

Of course, Zuckerberg’s past success is exactly why he still has plenty of believers, in spite of recent struggles. In February, CNBC’s Jim Cramer said he has “total faith in Mark Zuckerberg” when it comes to Meta’s bet on the metaverse.

George says Zuckerberg’s prior success likely came with its fair share of stress, which is why it’s a “good, healthy idea” for the CEO to take time off now through a sabbatical. 

He recommends Zuckerberg spend a few months away from the company entirely, which means not checking emails, managing team members from afar or doing any other work-related tasks. Zuckerberg should spend that time deeply reflecting about the purpose and future of his company, and what values he needs to ground himself in to improve as a leader, George adds. 

Why a sabbatical may be unlikely for Zuckerberg

But the odds of Zuckerberg actually following George’s advice may be unlikely. A long leave of absence could potentially further drag down Meta’s stock price in the short-term: It could create uncertainty about who would run the company in his absence, and a temporary leadership shakeup in the company could alarm analysts and investors.

Take what happened to Jack Dorsey, the co-founder and former CEO of Twitter, after he announced plans to move to Africa for six months in 2019. Before his plans fell through, Dorsey faced sharp criticism from some analysts who said the move would be “reckless” because “proximity matters” for leading a company.

The closest to a sabbatical that Zuckerberg may get is paternity leave: On Wednesday, he and his wife Priscilla Chan announced they’re expecting their third child. Zuckerberg took paternity leave in 2017 after his second child was born in the summer, breaking it up into two, one-month blocks: immediately after the birth and again in December.

Zuckerberg and Meta did not immediately respond to CNBC Make It’s request for comment. 

Realistic or not, other experts say George’s advice is spot on. DJ DiDonna, who studies sabbaticals and is the founder of research and advocacy nonprofit The Sabbatical Project, even recommends that Zuckerberg travel somewhere far from Meta’s Menlo Park, California headquarters for a sabbatical because “geographic separation” can help him fully disconnect from work. DiDonna adds that engaging in physical or creative activities during that time, whether that’s playing a sport or taking up painting, could help Zuckerberg reignite a genuine sense of passion and energy that he can then apply to his leadership at Meta. 

DiDonna points to his own research, including interviews with dozens of sabbatical-takers over the course of several years, that shows sabbaticals are a “transformational experience” that can help with personal development. In some cases, people can uncover a more authentic version of themselves and see other benefits: A restored sense of enthusiasm for work, more confidence in their voice and a better work-life balance.

“[Zuckerberg’s] literally been thinking about his company since college. He probably has no idea who he is or what his personality has become after all these years,” DiDonna tells CNBC Make It. “Sabbaticals are a way for people like him to disconnect from their routine life, to heal and restore themselves.”

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Randi Zuckerberg on kids and the metaverse, screen time

Randi Zuckerberg says she’s a “big proponent of the real world” — especially when it comes to protecting children from technology. 

Speaking at the Credit Suisse Global Supertrends Conference in Singapore earlier this month, Randi Zuckerberg, who is founder and CEO of Zuckerberg Media, discussed worries among many that the metaverse will take children further away from reality. 

“I’m a big proponent of the real world, especially when it comes to children,” she said.

“In fact, I think you’ll find that many tech executives and entrepreneurs are the biggest proponents of not giving tech to their own children at a very early age.”

SEC filings do not indicate the size of Zuckerberg’s holdings in Meta, if there are any. However, she’s the sister of Mark Zuckerberg, who is the company’s CEO and owns nearly 13% of Meta.

Last October, Facebook changed its company name to Meta to reflect the social media giant’s pivot to developing virtual reality and augmented reality products and the so-called “metaverse.”

If we can make screen time something that’s valuable and connecting, I far prefer that as a mom [than] to just passively put kids in front of screens.

Randi Zuckerberg

Founder and CEO, Zuckerberg Media

The metaverse can be loosely defined as a virtual world. With cryptocurrency, people who are active in the metaverse can buy and develop virtual land or dress their own avatars.

However, its virtual reality division, Reality Labs, reported a loss of $2.8 billion during the quarter ending June. Shares of Meta have dropped 50% since the beginning of 2022. 

Immersive tech — good or bad? 

Ahmed said his organization’s investigation into VRChat — which is typically accessed through Meta’s Oculus Quests headsets — showed that minors were exposed to “abusive behaviour every seven minutes.”

“This included minors being exposed to graphic sexual content, bullying, sexual harassment and abuse of other users. We even found minors being groomed to repeat racist slurs and extremist talking points.”

In an email response to CNBC, a Meta spokesperson said Quest devices are designed for those who are 13 years and above. Its safety guidelines also state that adults should monitor children’s use of its headsets.

What our research found is that children are freely mix with adults in metaverse spaces, and lack tools with which to identify who they are interacting with.

Imran Ahmed

CEO, Centre for Countering Digital Hate

“In Meta-owned apps, users can mute, block and report others, and we recently introduced features like Personal Boundary to help avoid unwanted interactions.”

Some popular metaverse titles include Fortnite, Roblox and Decentraland. According to a presentation at Roblox’s Investor Day, 54.86% of Roblox daily active users were below the age of 13 as of 2020.

“I’m definitely not saying that anyone should be spending 12 hours a day [in the metaverse], but the reality is in the U.S., the average American spends five hours a day watching television,” said Zuckerberg. 

Instead of watching screens “passively,” she said that technology can provide experiences that are rich, meaningful and educational. 

“If we can make screen time something that’s valuable and connecting, I far prefer that as a mom [than] to just passively put kids in front of screens.”

Asking ‘difficult questions’

Certainly, I do think with any immersive environment that we’re on the front lines of, we do need to be asking these difficult questions and wondering what could happen.

Randi Zuckerberg

Founder and CEO, Zuckerberg Media

However, Ahmed cautioned that parents should be aware of risks in the metaverse. Such private online spaces can become home to rampant abuse and young girls in particular, can be exposed to sexual harassment, he said.

“What our research found is that children are freely mix with adults in metaverse spaces, and lack tools with which to identify who they are interacting with,” Ahmed added.

Zuckerberg admitted that violent video games are also something that she thinks about “a lot” as a mother. She said that as immersive graphics get better, there could be an effect on children — but it may not be all bad.

Randi Zuckerberg believes that it is “very important” that girls have early access to technology. “I actually sometimes try to go out of my way to introduce my daughter to tech,” she said.

Catherine Delahaye | Digitalvision | Getty Images

“On the flip side, though, there’s also been a lot of studies showing people if they’re put in an immersive environment where they see themselves later in life, they actually make better spending decisions now,” said Zuckerberg.

A 2020 study, for example, showed that VR spaces have the potential to help health-care professionals with “motivational interviewing” — a counseling approach that aims for patients to achieve positive health changes.

“I think there are pros and cons to everything,” Zuckerberg said.

“Certainly, I do think with any immersive environment that we’re on the front lines of, we do need to be asking these difficult questions and wondering what could happen.” 

While parents may be able to set screen time boundaries and limit their children’s access to immersive, the “real problem” is that they are unlikely to have any control over what their children encounter while they are in the metaverse, said Ahmed.

Web3 is in ‘chaos,’ metaverses in walled gardens: Randi Zuckerberg

“We’re really just scratching the surface of what we’re going to see [in the metaverse],” said Randi Zuckerberg, the founder and CEO of Zuckerberg Media.

Wildpixel | Istock | Getty Images

A smooth and “complete decentralization” of Web3 is not yet a reality, said Randi Zuckerberg, referring to a system in which users rather than companies have ownership of services and data.

The sister of Meta CEO Mark Zuckerberg was speaking at the Global Supertrends Conference 2022 on Wednesday.

The Web3 is a hypothetical, future version of the internet based on blockchain technology — an “ideal utopia,” said Zuckerberg.

“But … that’s not what’s happening. What’s happening in reality, is chaos.”

The founder and CEO of Zuckerberg Media, a production company and marketing consultancy, added, “You’re the only one watching your own back and your own assets, people are spending time protecting themselves by setting up so many different wallets and protecting their identity and that’s not contributing to development in the area.”

Zuckerberg, who was an early employee at Meta — formerly known as Facebook — explained that various metaverses are now acting as “their own walled garden,” in which users are unable to use their assets across platforms.

The metaverse can be loosely defined as a virtual world where people live, work and play. With cryptocurrency, users can buy and develop virtual land or dress their own avatars.

“Right now, I’m on Decentraland, my son is on Roblox, my other son is on Fortnite. That’s great — we’re all in the metaverse. [But] we have no interaction with one another,” she said.

“In order to really unlock the potential [of Web3], we’re going to need to figure out a system where there’s interoperability. What you have goes with you wherever you are, [and] we’re not there yet,” Zuckerberg added.

Going mainstream

However, according to Zuckerberg, that’s easier said than done because no company running a metaverse right now wants to give up control or “share that ownership.”

“That’s why it’s not we’re not seeing that kind of consumer mainstream adoption yet because there needs to be a world where you leave the house with one wallet. And you need to see that same behavior online also.”

She added that Web3 needs experts who have been involved in the global banking system and Web2 — the internet that we know today — to lend a “protective layer.”

Sectors with opportunities

Why Meta and Mark Zuckerberg are betting big on Whatsapp for business

Facebook’s new rebrand logo Meta is seen on smartpone in front of displayed logo of Facebook, Messenger, Intagram, Whatsapp and Oculus in this illustration picture taken October 28, 2021.

Dado Ruvic | Reuters

WhatsApp is already widely popular with U.S. consumers. Now Meta Platforms is turning more attention to building its small business base.

The Facebook parent company launched WhatsApp Business in 2018 with free, simple tools to help small businesses keep in touch with customers, offering a way for them to directly interact, search for products and indicate purchasing interest. 

Soon the company will roll out a premium service to small businesses, and it’s doubling down on a newer advertising format called “click-to-message,” which allows consumers to click on a company’s ad within Facebook or Instagram and directly start a conversation with that business on Messenger, Instagram or WhatsApp.

These initiatives offer Meta the ability to boost advertising revenue, stay relevant with small businesses and gain incremental revenue from the premium services offered, analysts said.

Keeping more inside the Meta universe

Meta (then Facebook) bought WhatsApp in October 2014 for around $22 billion. Since then, industry watchers have been watching closely for signs the company plans to monetize the platform more. That time could now be coming.

“If I stay on any of the Meta properties and I’m communicating using Meta, asking questions, and buying — all within the platform — there is no signal loss, and it’s easier for Meta to tell the brand its return-on-advertising spend,” said Mark Kelley, managing director and senior equity research analyst at Stifel. “Signal loss is really what’s been impacting social media companies this year.”

WhatsApp will be the “next chapter” in the company’s history, Meta CEO Mark Zuckerberg recently told CNBC’s Jim Cramer. He noted that the company’s “playbook over time” has been to build services to serve a wide audience and “scale the monetization” after reaching that goal. “And we’ve done that with Facebook and Instagram. WhatsApp is really going to be the next chapter, with business messaging and commerce being a big thing there,” he said.

This messaging from Meta comes at a time of transition for the company and uncertainty among investors. The company recently reported an earnings and revenue miss and forecast a second straight quarter of declining sales. Meta Platforms shares have lost roughly half their value this year. Mark Zuckerberg is betting large sums of money, currently at a loss, on a future in which the metaverse will be a growth driver for the company. But with his bet on the metaverse as far as a decade out before coming to fruition, the Meta CEO has stressed that in the short-term it is WhatsApp that is among the initiatives to focus on for growth.

WhatsApp Business has two components. There’s the WhatsApp Business app for small businesses. There’s also the WhatsApp Business platform, an API, for larger businesses like banks, airlines or e-commerce companies. The first 1,000 conversations on the platform each month are free. After that, businesses are charged per conversation, which includes all messages delivered in a 24-hour session, based on regional rates.

With the free app, small businesses can communicate directly with customers. They can set up automated messages to respond to customers, after business hours, for instance, with information about the business, such as a menu or their company’s location. Businesses can use it to send product pictures and descriptions to customers as well as other information they might be interested in. At present, there’s no ability to pay through WhatsApp, but it’s a feature Meta is considering, a company spokesman said.

Premium features for small businesses — to be rolled out in the coming months — will include the ability to manage chats across up to 10 devices as well as new customizable WhatsApp click-to-chat links to help businesses attract customers across their online presence, the company said in its blog. 

“We think messaging in general is the future of how people are going to want to communicate with businesses and vice versa. It’s the fastest and easiest way to get things done,” the spokesman said.

Why Main Street business is a focus for the WhatsApp push

Analysts see the broad potential. “Messaging is an international forum that everybody uses on an ongoing basis. It’s massive and it’s growing,” said Brian Fitzgerald, managing director and senior equity research analyst at Wells Fargo Securities.

There’s considerable room for growth in the U.S., where WhatsApp is still a “a largely untapped resource by small businesses,” said Rob Retzlaff, executive director of The Connected Commerce Council, a non-profit organization that promotes small businesses’ access to digital technologies and tools.

That’s something Meta sees changing over time. “We are deep believers that that behavior will continue to grow all over the world,” said Sheryl Sandberg, the company’s chief operating officer, on its second-quarter earnings call on July 27. The company estimates that 1 billion users are messaging with a business each week across WhatsApp, Messenger and Instagram. 

The need for free and low-cost digital tools for small businesses is underscored by a 2021 report from The Connected Commerce Council. The report noted that about 11 million small businesses would have closed all or part of their business if not for digital tools that allowed them to continue to operate. 

One driver for Meta in promoting WhatsApp Business is advertising revenue. “Click- to-message is already a multi-billion dollar business for us and we continue to see strong double-digit year-over-year growth,” Sandberg said on the second quarter earnings call. Click-to-message “is one of our fastest growing ad formats for us,” she added. The company does not break out how much of the business comes from WhatsApp versus Messenger or Instagram.

Businesses like this format because it’s “an inexpensive way to interact [with consumers] that feels a little more personal,” said Stifel’s Kelley. What’s more, it also alleviates a problem caused by the privacy change Apple made to its iOS operating system last year. 

Say, for instance, a customer views a Facebook ad for a sneaker retailer and connects directly with the business through WhatsApp. “In a world where we’re trying to do more and more with less and less data, there’s no leakage here. Everything’s protected,” Fitzgerald said. “Nobody [else] in the world knows I bought these sneakers and there’s a direct business-to-consumer connection.” 

Moreover, by offering premium services, Meta could boost revenue, at least incrementally, Kelley said.

José Montoya Gamboa, owner of Malhaya in Mexico, who has been using the free business app for several years, said he plans to pay for the premium version when it becomes available because he likes the ability to use it on multiple devices.

But Geraldine Colocia, community manager at Someone Somewhere, a certified B Corporation that collaborates with hundreds of artisans around Mexico, isn’t sure. She’s been using the free version of the app for more than two years, and would consider paying for it, but the decision will turn on the actual features and the pricing, she said.

Mark Zuckerberg shows early metaverse headsets Mirror Lake, Holocake

The company formerly known as Facebook is going to spend $10 billion this year on research and development on virtual reality and augmented reality technologies, including computerized glasses or headsets.

On Monday, Meta CEO Mark Zuckerberg showed off how much progress the social media company has made towards that goal by revealing many of the unfinished headset prototypes the company has built in its labs.

Zuckerberg has bet the future of the social networking company he founded on virtual reality, which immerses users in a computer-generated world, and augmented reality, which superimposes computer-generated objects over the real world. Last year, the company changed its name to Meta to highlight the company’s new emphasis on the metaverse, a virtual world where Zuckerberg imagines people will spend increasing amounts of time — ideally, through advanced computerized glasses.

If Zuckerberg succeeds in making head-worn computers mainstream, then Meta would have a new revenue stream of hardware sales, and it would control its own hardware platform, which would make it less susceptible to platform changes from other companies. For instance, on its last earnings call, Meta said that recent privacy changes Apple made to the iPhone could cost it $10 billion in foregone revenue this year, as it hampers the company’s ability to target ads to precise audiences.

The VR market is currently small and there are questions about how big it could get. Meta currently dominates headset sales, with its current $299 Quest 2 accounting 78% of all headset sales in 2021, according to an estimate from IDC. But there were only 11.2 million VR headsets sold total during the year — a far smaller number than smartphones or PCs.

Meanwhile, investors are skeptical about Meta’s pivot away from its core business of ads and apps. The stock has fallen over 53% so far in 2022 on fears of growing expenses, light growth forecasts, increased competition from TikTok, and effects from Apple’s iPhone privacy change that hampered mobile ads.

Monday’s demonstration did little to calm those fears — Meta’s stock was down more than 4% in late-day trading Tuesday, despite a broader rally in tech stocks. (U.S. markets were closed Monday for the Juneteenth holiday observation.)

What Zuckerberg showed

Meta is developing next-generation virtual reality displays designed to provide a realistic enough experience for users to feel like they’re in the same room with other virtual people, Zuckerberg said during his demonstration. Current displays have low resolution, display distortion artifacts, and can’t be worn for long periods of time.

“It’s not going to be that long before we can create scenes in perfect fidelity,” Zuckerberg said on a call with media about the company’s virtual reality efforts. “Only instead of looking at them on a screen, you’ll feel like you’re there.”

“The issue today is that the vividness of screens that we have now compared to what your eye sees in the physical world is off by an order of magnitude or more,” Zuckerberg said.

For the past few years Meta has regularly shown its progress working on virtual reality headsets and augmented reality glasses to partners and the press, to encourage investors to regard the project as worthwhile, and to help recruit highly-paid developers and executives with experience in VR and AR.

In these roundtable presentations, Meta regularly shows off unfinished prototypes for use in research, which is unusual in consumer electronics. Gadget companies like to complete products and figure out how they are going to be manufactured before talking about them with the press. For example, Apple, which is working on headsets of its own, never shows off prototypes.

“These prototypes, they’re custom and bespoke models that we built in our lab, so they’re not products that are ready to ship,” Zuckerberg said.

Here were the prototypes he showed:

Butterscotch. Butterscotch is designed to test higher-resolution displays that have pixels small enough so that the human eye can’t tell them apart. Butterscotch has a new lens Meta developed that limits the headset’s field of view, making it possible to present fine text and display increased realism.

However, Meta says the prototype was “nowhere near shippable” because of how heavy and bulky it is — plus, the prototype still has exposed circuit boards.

Half Dome 3. Meta has been working on Half Dome headsets since at least 2017 in order to test a kind of display that can shift how far away the focus point of the headset’s optics is. With Half Dome’s technology, Meta says, the resolution and image quality could improve enough for users to create giant computer monitors inside a headset to work on. The newest version, 3, replaces mechanical parts with liquid crystal lenses.

Holocake 2. Meta says this is the thinnest and lightest VR headset it’s made and that it’s fully capable of running any VR software if it’s hooked up to a PC. However, it requires specialized lasers that are too expensive for consumer use and require additional safety precautions.

“In most VR headsets, the lenses are pretty thick and they have to be positioned a few inches from the display so they can properly focus and direct light directly into your eyes,” Zuckerberg said. In Holocake 2, Meta uses a flat, holographic lens to reduce bulk (in addition to the lasers.)

Starburst. Starburst is a research prototype focusing on high-dynamic range displays which are brighter and show a wider range of colors. Meta says that HDR is the single technology that’s most linked to additional realism and depth.

“The goal of all this work is to identify which technical paths are going to allow us to meaningfully improve in ways that start to approach the visual realism that we need,” Zuckerberg said.

Mirror Lake. Meta also showed off a concept design called Mirror Lake for a ski-goggle style headset. Mirror Lake is designed to combine all the different Meta headset technologies it’s developing into a single, next-generation display.

“The Mirror Lake concept is promising, but right now it’s only a concept with no fully functional headset yet built to conclusively prove out the architecture,” Meta Reality Labs chief scientist Michael Abrash said. “But if it does pan out, it will be a game changer for the VR visual experience.”

Lessons Buffett and Zuckerberg learned from these books on business

There’s no shame in finding business tips and tricks on TikTok. But if you want to follow in the footsteps of your favorite entrepreneur or tech titan – think Berkshire Hathaway CEO Warren Buffett or Meta founder Mark Zuckerberg, for instance – you might want to crack open one of the books where they picked up some of their most valuable lessons.

Zuckerberg, for instance, wrote in a 2015 Facebook post that he liked to read “first-hand accounts about how people build great companies.” The 37-year-old billionaire turns to those books, he said in another post, for insight into “what causes innovation — what kinds of people, questions and environments,”

He’s far from alone, especially among his fellow successful business leaders.

Below, four entrepreneurs share the books that shaped their careers, business strategies, and — in a few cases — the way they think:

1. Mark Zuckerberg

In 2015, Zuckerberg read “Creativity, Inc.: Overcoming the Unseen Forces That Stand in the Way of True Inspiration,” by Alice Wallace and Edwin Catmull, co-founder of Pixar. It tells the story of how the animation studio became a titan of entertainment innovation.

It appears Zuckerberg took at least one lesson from the book: “Don’t wait for things to be before you share them with others,” Catmull wrote in the book. “Show early and show often. It’ll be pretty when we get there, but it won’t be pretty along the way.”

“Done is better than perfect” was painted on Meta headquarters in Menlo Park, California.

Zuckerberg wrote he was also struck by Jon Gertner’s “The Idea Factory: Bell Labs and the Great Age of American Innovation,” which tells the history of Bell Labs – which was founded by Alexander Graham Bell and is now owned by Nokia.

2. Daymond John (and fellow Sharks Barbara Corcoran and Robert Herjavec)

3. Warren Buffett

4. Emma Grede